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The 19th Century

1809 Centrifugal casting is developed by A. G. Eckhardt of Soho, England.

1815 The cupola is introduced in the United States in Baltimore, MD.

1818 First cast steel produced by the crucible process in the U.S. at the Valley Forge Foundry.

1825 Aluminum, the most common metal in the earth's crust, is isolated.

1826 Seth Boyden of Newark, NJ, is the first to develop a process for and produce "blackheart" malleable iron.

1831 In Cincinnati, OH, William Garrard establishes the first commercial crucible steel operation in the U.S.

1837 First dependable molding machine is marketed and used by the S. Jarvis Adams Company in Pittsburg.

1845 The open hearth furnace is developed.

1851 Sir Henry Bessemer and William Kelly both invent a simple converter that uses blasts of air to burn out the impurities, silicon, manganese and excess carbon in pig iron. Although Kelly is the first to use a converter, Bessemer obtains the U.S. patents. Kelly proves patent priority in 1857.

1863 Metallography, the etching, polishing, and microscopic evaluation of metal surfaces, is developed by Henry C. Sarby of Sheffield, England. It is the first process to physically examine the surface of castings for quality analysis.

1867 James Nasmythe develops a gear-tilted foundry ladle, increasing worker safety and operational economy.

1870 Sandblasting is first used to clean large castings by R. E. Tilghman of Philadelphia.

1880-1887 The Sly tumbling mill is developed. It is the first cleaning machine for small castings. This mill greatly reduced the time needed for hand-cleaning operations and produced a finer finished product.

1896 American Foundrymen's Association (renamed American Foundrymen's Society in 1948 and now called the American Foundry Society) is formed.

1897 Investment casting is rediscovered by B.F. Philbrook of Iowa. He uses it to cast dental inlays.